Author Guidelines

Statement of publication ethics and publication malpractice
(created using the Publishing ethics resource Kit and in accordance with Elsevier recommendations)

Journal Publication Ethics Guidelines
(These guidelines are based on Elsevier policy)

Writer's Duties

(These guidelines are based on Elsevier policy)

Reporting standards

The author of an original research report must present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. The underlying data must be represented accurately on the paper. A paper should contain enough detail and references to allow others to replicate the work. Deceptive or intentionally inaccurate statements are unethical and unacceptable behavior. Reviews and professional publication articles must also be accurate and objective, and editorial opinion pieces must be clearly identified.

Data access and retention

Authors may be asked to provide raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data, if possible, and should in any event be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.

Originality and plagiarism

Authors must ensure that they have written entirely original work, and if the author has used the work and/or words of others, then these have been appropriately cited or quoted. Plagiarism takes many forms, from passing off someone else's paper as the author's own paper, copying or paraphrasing important parts of another person's paper (without attribution), to claiming results from research conducted by someone else. Plagiarism in all its forms is unethical and unacceptable publishing behavior.

Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication

An author may not generally publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal simultaneously is unethical and unacceptable publishing behavior. In general, an author may not submit for consideration to another journal a previously published paper. Publication of some types of articles (e.g. clinical guidelines, translations) in more than one journal may sometimes be justified, provided certain conditions are met. The author and editor of the journal in question must agree to the secondary publication, which must reflect the same data and interpretation of the primary document. Primary references must be cited in secondary publications.

Source acknowledgment

Proper recognition of the work of others should always be given. Authors should cite publications that were influential in determining the nature of the work reported. Information obtained privately, such as in conversations, correspondence, or discussions with third parties, may not be used or reported without explicit written permission from the source. Information obtained during confidential service, such as referenced manuscripts or grant applications, may not be used without the express written permission of the author of the work involved in this service.

Paper writing

Authorship should be limited to those who have made significant contributions to the conception, design, implementation, or interpretation of the reported study. All persons who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where others have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors. The corresponding author must ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have approved its submission for publication.

Human or animal hazards and subjects

If the work involves chemicals, procedures, or equipment that have unusual hazards inherent in their use, authors should identify them clearly in the manuscript. If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, authors should ensure that the manuscript contains a statement that all procedures were performed in accordance with relevant laws and institutional guidelines and that the appropriate institutional committee has approved them. Authors must include a statement in the manuscript that consent was obtained for experiments with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be considered.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest

All authors must disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflicts of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project must be disclosed. Examples of potential conflicts of interest that must be disclosed include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Potential conflicts of interest should be disclosed as early as possible.

Fundamental errors in published work

When an author discovers significant errors or inaccuracies in his published work, it is the author's obligation to immediately notify the journal editor or publisher and work with the editor to retract or correct the paper. If the editor or publisher learns from a third party that a published work contains significant errors, it is the author's obligation to immediately retract or correct the paper or provide the editor with evidence of the correctness of the original paper.

Duties of the Editorial Board

(These guidelines are based on Elsevier policy and the COPE Best Practices Guidelines for Journal Editors)

Publication decisions

Editors of peer-reviewed Primaryedu Journals are responsible for deciding which articles submitted to the journal should be published. Validation of the work in question and its importance to researchers and readers should always drive such decisions. Editors may be guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and limited by applicable legal requirements regarding defamation, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. The editor may consult with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.

Fair play

An editor should evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to the author's race, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, ethnic origin, nationality, or political philosophy.


Editors and any editorial staff should not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisors, and the publisher, as appropriate.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest

Unpublished material disclosed in a submitted manuscript may not be used in the editor's own research without the written consent of the author. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal gain. Editors should recuse themselves (i.e. should ask a fellow editor, associate editor or other editorial board member to review and consider) from considering manuscripts in which they have a conflict of interest due to a competitive, collaborative, or other relationship or connection with one of the authors, companies, or (possibly) the institution associated with the paper. Editors should require all contributors to disclose relevant competing interests and issue corrections if competing interests are revealed after publication. If necessary, other appropriate action should be taken, such as publication of a retraction or statement of concern.

Involvement and cooperation in investigations

An editor must take reasonably responsive steps when an ethical complaint has been raised regarding a submitted manuscript or published paper, in relation to the publisher (or society). Such action will generally include contacting the author.