Tabita Hermayani, Concilianus Laos Mbato


The global market’s growth influences the increasing need of English speaking proficiency for many professions. Hence, non-English department students equip themselves with English speaking proficiency. Some take courses in some informal institutions; others make their own independent English club. A group of metacognitive Civil Engineering students in Indonesia formed a Speaking Club to facilitate their learning. The research aimed to measure the metacognitive awareness of some Civil Engineering students during their independent learning activities. The analysis was done by using the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI). To triangulate the data, interviews, observation and critical reflection were used. From the research it could be concluded that independent learning can be facilitated and born from cooperative learning. Cooperative learning builds up learners’ motivation through peer feedbacks and monitoring done by a tutor. Metacognitive awareness was built upon the realization of clear learning objectives, followed by self-determination, and planning. Consistency is also required to sustain self-regulated learning.


Keywords:  Metacognitive Awareness, Speaking, Learning Strategy


Full Text:



Al Hosni, S. (2014). Speaking difficulties encountered by young EFL learners. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL), 2(6), 22-30.

Bailey, K. M. (2003). Speaking. Practical English language teaching, 47-66.

Basturkmen, H. (2014). Ideas and options in English for specific purposes. Routledge.

Chamot, A. U. (2004). Issues in language learning strategy research and teaching. Electronic journal of foreign language teaching, 1(1), 14-26.

Cosgrove, T., & Slattery, D. M. (2014). Implementing reflective writing in a problem-based learning civil engineering programme.

Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2017). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage publications.

Crystal, D. (2012). English as a global language. Cambridge university press.

Fitriandi, P., Kakinaka, M., & Kotani, K. (2014). Foreign direct investment and infrastructure development in Indonesia: Evidence from province level data. Asian Journal of Empirical Research, 4(1), 79-94.

Gibbs, G. R. (2018). Analyzing qualitative data (Vol. 6). Sage.

Griffiths, C., & Oxford, R. L. (2014). The twenty-first century landscape of language learning strategies: Introduction to this special issue. System, 43, 1-10.

Hong-Nam, K. (2014). ELL High School Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategy Use and Reading Proficiency. Tesl-Ej, 18(1), n1.

Jaleel, S. (2016). A study on the metacognitive awareness of secondary school students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4(1), 165-172.

Hornsby, M. (2015). The “new” and “traditional” speaker dichotomy: Bridging the gap.

Kemmis, S., McTaggart, R., & Nixon, R. (2015). Critical theory and critical participatory action research (pp. 454-464). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Kendon, A. (2014). Semiotic diversity in utterance production and the concept of ‘language’. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 369(1651), 20130293.

Lajoie, S. P., & Poitras, E. (2014). ‒Macro and Micro Strategies for Metacognition and Socially Shared Regulation in the Medical Tutoring Domain. Design Recommendations for Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 151.

Lehmann, T., Hähnlein, I., & Ifenthaler, D. (2014). Cognitive, metacognitive and motivational perspectives on preflection in self-regulated online learning. Computers in human behavior, 32, 313-323.

Mahdavi, M. (2014). An overview: Metacognition in education. International Journal of Multidisciplinary and current research, 2(3), 529-535.

Mbato, C. L. (2013). Facilitating EFL learners' self-regulation in reading: implementing a metacognitive approach in an Indonesian higher education context.

McDonough, J., & McDonough, S. (2014). Research methods for English language teachers. Routledge.

Mertler, C. A. (2016). Action research: Improving schools and empowering educators. Sage Publications.

Meyer, J. H., Knight, D. B., Callaghan, D. P., & Baldock, T. E. (2015). An empirical exploration of metacognitive assessment activities in a third-year civil engineering hydraulics course. European Journal of Engineering Education, 40(3), 309-327.

Moritz, S., & Lysaker, P. H. (2018). Metacognition–what did James H. Flavell really say and the implications for the conceptualization and design of metacognitive interventions. Schizophrenia Research, 201, 20-26.

Murphy, E. (2003). Monolingual international schools and the young non-English-speaking child. Journal of Research in International Education, 2(1), 25-45.

Nosratinia, M., Saveiy, M., & Zaker, A. (2014). EFL learners' self-efficacy, metacognitive awareness, and use of language learning strategies: how are they associated?. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(5), 1080.

Nugraha, A. (2018). Politik Pembangunan Era Jokowi (Studi: Peran Pemerintah Tiongkok dalam Pembangunan Infrastruktur di Indonesia).

Nunan, D. (2015). Teaching English to speakers of other languages: An introduction. Routledge.

Rahayu, R., & Day, J. (2015). Determinant factors of e-commerce adoption by SMEs in developing country: evidence from Indonesia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 142-150.

Rahimirad, M., & Shams, M. R. (2014). The effect of activating metacognitive strategies on the listening performance and metacognitive awareness of EFL students. International Journal of Listening, 28(3), 162-176.

Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge university press.

Ruan, Z. (2014). Metacognitive awareness of EFL student writers in a Chinese ELT context. Language Awareness, 23(1-2), 76-91.

Schraw, G., & Dennison, R. S. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary educational psychology, 19(4), 460-475.

Shea, N., Boldt, A., Bang, D., Yeung, N., Heyes, C., & Frith, C. D. (2014). Supra-personal cognitive control and metacognition. Trends in cognitive sciences, 18(4), 186-193.

Tuysuzoglu, B. B., & Greene, J. A. (2015). An investigation of the role of contingent metacognitive behavior in self-regulated learning. Metacognition and Learning, 10(1), 77-98.

Tsiplakides, I., & Keramida, A. (2009). Helping Students Overcome Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety in the English Classroom: Theoretical Issues and Practical Recommendations. International Education Studies, 2(4), 39-44.

Yamin, M., & Windymadaksa, S. (2017). Pembangunan Kereta Cepat Jakarta-Bandung Sebagai Mercusuar Hubungan Indonesia-Tiongkok. Jpp (Jurnal Politik Profetik), 5(2), 200-218.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

p-ISSN: 2614-6320

e-ISSN: 2614-6258

 Project by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - Share Alike 4.0 Internasional License.

View My Stats